Which of the is an exfoliative toxin?

Asked by: Henry Jones  |  Last update: 29 June 2021
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The exfoliative toxins of Staphylococcus aureus are responsible for the staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, a blistering skin disorder that particularly affects infants and young children, as well as adults with underlying disease.

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Also question is, Is exfoliative toxin Type 1?

The target antigen of the exfoliative toxin is desmoglein 1, a desmosomal protein involved in intercellular adhesion. Unlike the toxin produced in staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome, the exfoliative toxin of SSSS is not thought to induce hemodynamic compromise (see Chapter 62).

Regarding this, Are exfoliative toxins Superantigens?. Note: Recombinant Staphylococcus aureus Exfoliative Toxins Are Not Bacterial Superantigens.

Hereof, What is the mechanism of action for exfoliative toxin?

It is speculated that binding of the N-terminal alpha-helix to desmoglein-1 results in a conformation change that opens the active site of the toxin to cleave the extracellular domain of desmoglein-1 between the third and fourth domains, resulting in disruption of intercellular adhesion and formation of superficial ...

Which patients are most susceptible for exfoliative strains of S aureus?

SSSS predominantly affects neonates and infants, but immune system and renal impairment are reported to be susceptibility factors in adults. Mortality among treated children is low and does not exceed 5% [3,16]. The number of fatal cases in adults is much higher, reaching 59% in some studies [3].

19 related questions found

Is Exfoliatin an exotoxin?

Exfoliatin is a Staphylococcus aureus exotoxin that causes a blistering of the skin known as staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, usually in infants.

What is the function of Staphylokinase?

Staphylokinase (Sak), a protein secreted by many S. aureus strains [6], activates human plasminogen (h-plg) into plasmin [7]. Plasmin in turn digests fibrin clots and many components of extracellular matrix and basal membranes [8] and activates latent matrix metalloproteinases, leading to extensive proteolysis [8].

What enzyme of MRSA confers resistance to all β lactam antibiotics?

The resistance of MRSA strains is caused by the acquisition of the mecA gene encoding the alternative transpeptidase penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP2a), with very low affinity for almost all β-lactam antibiotics (4,–7).

What is scalded skin syndrome?

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a serious skin infection. The infection causes peeling skin over large parts of the body. It looks like the skin has been scalded or burned by hot liquid. It's more common in the summer and fall.

What is Ritters disease?

Ritter disease: This is the scalded skin syndrome, a potentially serious side effect of infection with the Staph (Staphylococcus) bacteria that produces a specific protein which loosens the "cement" holding the various layers of the skin together. This allows blister formation and sloughing of the top layer of skin.

What do exfoliative toxins do?

The exfoliative toxins of Staphylococcus aureus are responsible for the staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, a blistering skin disorder that particularly affects infants and young children, as well as adults with underlying disease.

Why do bacteria produce Superantigens?

Superantigens are bacterial proteins that generate a powerful immune response by binding to Major Histocompatibility Complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T cell receptors on T cells.

What does alpha toxin do?

α-Toxin is the archetypal β-barrel pore-forming membrane-damaging cytotoxin [99]. It is a proven virulence factor in several animal infection models and is essential for infections which disrupt epithelial barriers such as in the lung (pneumonia) [100], the cornea (keratoconjunctivitis) and the skin (dermonecrosis).

What do Leukocidins do?

Leukocidins target phagocytes, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and T lymphocytes and therefore targets both, innate and adaptive immune responses. Leukocidins fall into the category of bacterial invasin. Invasins are enzymatic secretions that help bacteria invade the host tissue to which they are attached.

What toxins are produced by Staphylococcus aureus?

Amongst the more common toxins secreted by S. aureus are hemolysin, leukotoxin, exfoliative toxin, enterotoxin, and toxic-shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Aside from toxins, staphylococcal virulence factors also include enzymes and surface proteins.

How does protein a work as main virulence factor?

Abstract. Staphylococcal protein A (SpA), a cell wall anchored protein of Staphylococcus aureus, has the ability to interact with several host components, possibly indicating a role as a virulence factor in S. ... The wild-type strain caused more in vitro spleen cell proliferation than the SpA-deficient strain.

What causes MRSA resistant?

Summary: Scientists have found that genetic mutations in MRSA allow it to evolve and become more resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin. Scientists from the University of Sheffield have found that genetic mutations in MRSA allow it to evolve and become more resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin.

What is the drug of choice for MRSA?

Vancomycin or daptomycin are the agents of choice for treatment of invasive MRSA infections [1]. Alternative agents that may be used for second-line or salvage therapy include telavancin, ceftaroline, and linezolid.

What antibiotics treat MRSA?

At home — Treatment of MRSA at home usually includes a 7- to 10-day course of an antibiotic (by mouth) such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (brand name: Bactrim), clindamycin, minocycline, linezolid, or doxycycline.