Where does swallowing occur?

Asked by: Henry Taylor  |  Last update: 25 August 2021
Score: 4.7/5 (51 votes)

The swallowing reflex, which is mediated by the swallowing center in the medulla (the lower part of the brainstem), causes the food to be further pushed back into the pharynx and the esophagus (food pipe) by rhythmic and involuntary contractions of several muscles in the back of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus.

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People also ask, How does swallowing occur?

The teeth grind and chop food into tiny pieces while the glands in the mouth moisten it with saliva. Then the tongue pushes the moistened food, or bolus, to the back of the throat and down into the esophagus, which leads to the stomach.

One may also ask, Where is the swallow triggered?. Triggering of the swallowing response occurs at the anterior faucial arch. velopharyngeal port to prevent material from entering the nasal cavity.

Also asked, What muscles are responsible for swallowing?

These muscles include the omohyoid, sternohyoid, and sternothyroid muscles (ansa cervicalis), and the thyrohyoid muscle (CN XII). [17] The longitudinal pharyngeal muscles function to condense and expand the pharynx as well as help elevate the pharynx and larynx during swallowing.

What are the 4 stages of swallowing?

The Four Phases of the Normal Adult Swallow Process
  • Oral Preparatory Phase.
  • Oral Transit Phase.
  • Pharyngeal Phase.
  • Esophageal Phase.

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What are the signs of dysphagia?

Other signs of dysphagia include:
  • coughing or choking when eating or drinking.
  • bringing food back up, sometimes through the nose.
  • a sensation that food is stuck in your throat or chest.
  • persistent drooling of saliva.
  • being unable to chew food properly.
  • a gurgly, wet-sounding voice when eating or drinking.

Is swallowing a volitional act?

Eating and swallowing are compex behaviors including both volitional and reflexive activities involving more than 30 nerves and muscles.

Is swallowing a reflex action?

Swallowing is basically an involuntary reflex; one cannot swallow unless there is saliva or some substance to be swallowed. Initially, food is voluntarily moved to the rear of the oral cavity, but once food reaches the back of the mouth, the reflex to swallow takes over and cannot be retracted.

What are the stages of dysphagia?

What is dysphagia?
  • Oral preparatory phase. During this phase, you chew your food to a size, shape, and consistency that can be swallowed. ...
  • Pharyngeal phase. Here, the muscles of your pharynx contract in sequence. ...
  • Esophageal phase. The muscles in your esophagus contract in sequence to move the bolus toward your stomach.

Can tight neck muscles cause trouble swallowing?

However, possible symptoms include: a tight feeling in the neck. hoarseness. difficulty swallowing and breathing.

What is uncoordinated swallowing?

Muscular: When the sphincters of the esophagus do not properly relax or contract, food is often regurgitated back into the throat after swallowing. The muscles can also spasm, resulting in multiple, uncoordinated contractions of the esophagus that make swallowing painful.

What causes delayed swallow trigger?

Delayed/Absent Swallowing Response(transition between the oral and pharyngeal stages of swallow) occurs if the bolus rolls over the base of tongue before the swallowing response triggers.

What causes delayed swallowing?

Disturbances of the brain such as those caused by Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, or ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or Lou Gehrig's disease) Oral or pharynx muscle dysfunction such as from a stroke. Loss of sphincter muscle relaxation (termed "achalasia")

What is a swallow test?

A swallowing study is a test that shows what your throat and esophagus do while you swallow. The test uses X-rays in real time (fluoroscopy) to film as you swallow. You'll swallow a substance called barium that is mixed with liquid and food.

What is the term for difficult or painful swallowing?

Dysphagia is the medical term used to describe swallowing difficulties. Some people with dysphagia experience pain while swallowing, known as odynophagia. In particularly severe cases, a person with dysphagia may not be able to safely swallow solids, liquids, or even their own saliva.

What is the most common cause of dysphagia?

Acid reflux disease is the most common cause of dysphagia. People with acid reflux may have problems in the esophagus, such as an ulcer, a stricture (narrowing of the esophagus), or less likely a cancer causing difficulty swallowing.

How do you trigger a swallow reflex?

Ice massage with an ice stick applied to the throat, base of the anterior faucial arches, base of the tongue, and posterior pharyngeal wall is widely used in Japan as a prefeeding technique to induce dry swallowing, to stimulate swallowing apraxia for initiating the swallow action, and in daily swallowing training.

What starts swallowing reflex?

The reflex is initiated by touch receptors in the pharynx as a bolus of food is pushed to the back of the mouth by the tongue, or by stimulation of the palate (palatal reflex). Swallowing is a complex mechanism using both skeletal muscle (tongue) and smooth muscles of the pharynx and esophagus.

How do you know you have a swallowing reflex?

A videofluoroscopy assesses your swallowing ability. It takes place in the X-ray department and provides a moving image of your swallowing in real time. You'll be asked to swallow different types of food and drink of different consistencies, mixed with a non-toxic liquid called barium that shows up on X-rays.